Further in to matter and energy we shall deal with the quantum theory with a different aspect:
1. Quantum theory assumes Energy is not continues; it comes in discrete small units
2. Einstein developed there is no boundary between material and energy.
Therefore we assume :
There should be type of smallest energy particle for which we can call ultimatum, where the boundary between particle and energy cannot be devided. All sub atomic particles are a combination of these energy particles.
When an electrical spark pass between two polarities we experience light and heat dissipated, while electrons pass between polarities as electrical power. The ultimate energy particles are the smaller derivative particles of light and heat. Anyway these particles cannot categorize as matter or energy directly.
Depending on the amount of energy particles (e-particles) grouped in to a single particle and the frequency of such grouped particle we can classify them as heat particle (he- particles) , light energy particles (le-particles), electrons etc.
We know sound also a form of energy. We experience sound transmit though air by moving atmospheric particle. When sound generate from speaker the diaphragm has to move forward and backwards by some physical means. The air close to the diaphragm also oscillates, the same manner and convey these oscillations to distance. With sound there we don't find any particles emitting while it generate sound, but the nearby particles participate conveying energy wave to distance.
During the birth of an atom sub atomic particles move from the center of atom like in an explosion. Due to the attraction (gravitation) these particles are not capable of escaping the gravitational field of the atom, so that they are orbiting around the atom. They can be moving in elliptical path. Amount of sub atomic particles it can hold are limited depending the mass of the atom. Therefore we can count electrons are a combination of ultimatum energy particles.
Thus energy spent on joining two energy particles can be given the shown equation where m is the mass of energy particle. Where µ is a universal gravitational constant.
When we deal with the gravitational field of earth - the upper limit of field intensity is 6.4 R .10^4, where R is the radius of the concerned energy particle. Since infinity is an imaginary value we can substitute 6.4 R..10^4 for infinity in this case.
Therefore energy spent on combining or departing two energy particles will be
W = f.s = µ. m^2 . 6.4R .10^4 If it is an electron "m" will be .0005 atom mass units
Thus the difference between materials and energy can be distinguished in the following manner:
If particles or energy particles are not in motion they are available as materials.
When electrons move in an orbital path around nucleus, electrons are generating certain frequency for its movement. Energy particles are releasing from nucleus at this frequency and emit them out of the atom as heat and light at the frequency of orbiting electrons around the atom.
Energy is available with a frequency
When an external force agitate the atom, the orbital paths that the electron travel will be enlarged. Under these conditions nucleus does not require the previously held amount of energy to maintain the electrons in new orbit. Therefore it release some energy in the form of heat, light and any other form. The frequency (resonance) of energy emitted is then similar to the oscillations of electrons orbiting around nucleus.
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Last edited : On 7th October 2010 by Leelananda Jayasuriya.